15 Quick Editing Steps to Rewrite Success
by Deborah Owen
Editing is another name for rewriting, and rewriting can only come once you’ve finished. Once that’s done, each round of editing should accomplish a specific purpose.
Follow these 15 quick editing steps to find out how.
1. Do some warm-up writing for ten minutes before you begin editing. During this time, write about something that makes you mad… perhaps an old flame, something an old boyfriend or girlfriend did, a spanking you unjustly received—anything that will stir your emotions and creativity. When your creative juices are flowing, you can critique you own work better.
2. Keep your eye on the goal. Refer back to the rough outline you used as the basis for your first draft. (What? You didn’t use an outline? No wonder you’re reading this article.) Be sure you’ve included all the initial points you wanted to make.
3. Check for linear flow (order of events). Don’t try flashbacks unless you know what you’re doing.
4. Don’t tell what your character is thinking. SHOW it with action, demonstration, or dialogue. Keep in mind that showing always takes three to five times more words than telling. That’s okay, as long as it’s meaty.
Example of Telling: I’m so nervous, Jennifer thought as she saw the doctor approach. (Boo… hiss… bad writing)
Showing: Jennifer picked on her thumbnail as the doctor approached with furrowed brow. Noises in the room amplified. Did his strides grow longer? Was everyone looking at her? Tick. Tick. Tick. The clock chimed six and echoed in her head. A tiny drop of blood pushed to the thumb’s surface as she pulled the nail into the quick. The stabbing pain was a welcome diversion.
5. Edit for excessive wordiness, also known as verbiage. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines verbiage as “profusion of words, usually of little or obscure content.” In other words, excess words say nothing. Cut your sentences until they bleed. Use only one adjective at a time. Chop your descriptions down to that which relates directly to the scene and leave only the most necessary. When you delete a favorite phrase, copy it and save it in a file for another day.
6. Delete all adverbs ending in -ly, such as sadly, hatefully, etc. The use of adverbs is a sure indicator that you aren’t engaging the technique called Show, Don’t Tell. (See #4)
7. Sentence tags: Don’t use “said she” or “said he.” Turn those words around to read “he said” and “she said.” Delete most tag endings, such as “she said with a snicker.” If you have sufficiently built your characters and the scene, the reader will know the attitudes on display.
8. Check the verbs and replace them with jazzier ones. Examples:
• He choked until he couldn’t breathe – He hawked until he couldn’t breathe.
• The little girl ran down the sidewalk – The little girl skipped down the sidewalk.
• The boy hit the ball out of the park – The boy whanged the ball out of the park.
Jazzing your verbs (choosing more active verbs) will make your work glow!
9. Douse as many forms of the verb “to be” as possible. That includes is, am, are, was, were, be, being and been. These are dead verbs that say nothing. According to Wikipedia, allowed forms are: become, has, have, had (use sparingly), I’ve, you’ve, do, does, doing, did, can, could, will, would, shall, should, ought, may, might and must. The fact that they are allowed, however, does not make them desirable. Get rid of as many as possible because they weaken sentence structure. Likewise, using “could” and “would” will drop you into a trap that you’ll find hard to escape.
10. Watch for tense changes. If you begin in past tense, the entire story must be written in past tense, with two exceptions – one of which you should never use.
The first exception is dialogue, and that’s because people speak in mixed tenses – present, past, and future.
The second is internal dialogue (thoughts). That throws it into the omniscient voice and editors consider it a lazy writer’s way of telling what they should be showing. Don’t use it.
11. Follow the rules for prepositional phrases – no more than three to a sentence, and avoid using more than two in consecutive order. Prepositions are easy to identify. Some of the most common are: in, on, at, to, for, under, before, but there are hundreds. Find a partial list of them here: http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/prepositions-list.htm.
Pick out the ones you use most and avoid them like the plague. Prepositional phrases usually tell when or where, such as: “I will meet you IN the afterlife,” or “He told his daughter to go INTO the house.” Consecutive prepositional phrases make weak sentence construction. Note: If you begin a sentence with a prepositional phrase, place a comma at the end of it (just as I did in this sentence.)
Space ONCE after a period.
For writing in the USA, most punctuation (except the colon and sometimes the question mark) lies within the quote marks. Check to see that all of your quotes are closed.
Don’t use a semi-colon unless it is before the words “however” or “therefore,” (in which case, use a comma immediately after those words).
Don’t use colons except to list things: recipes, items of clothing, kinds of perfume, etc.
Use commas to separate two clauses into a compound sentence, between city and state, and to offset introductory prepositional phrases.
Don’t use more than one exclamation mark per every 2,000 words!!!
Learn to use the ellipsis (three dots) properly. Remember, the ellipsis represents a pause or interruption in the sentence. It’s easy to overuse these little devils. If you find yourself falling into that trap, use a dash instead and insert a space on each side of it.
Rules for using the ellipsis:
a. When used at the beginning of a sentence: “(space)…And that’s all he said.”
b. In the middle of a sentence: “I hated to tell you that…(space) I didn’t want to hurt your feelings.”
c. At the end of a sentence, use four dots: “I didn’t want to tell you….” (Some people speak partial phrases and don’t intend to complete them. In such cases, use four dots. The fourth dot acts as a period at the end of the sentence… or some the period is the first dot and the ellipsis follows. It makes a nice theological debate.)
13. Use the spellchecker, but don’t totally rely on it. If you use homophones such as “right” when you meant “write,” or “blew” instead of “blue,” it won’t catch the error. To be safe, scan for mistakes after you use the spellchecker.
14. Check your formatting. Most places request a double-spaced body and indented paragraphs. When the dialogue changes from one speaker to the next, start a new paragraph.
15. Lastly, ask a friend to read your article aloud while you note places you want to change. This is the best way to get clear perspective on what you’ve written. If you don’t have someone to read it aloud, YOU read it aloud—but be careful to read exactly what’s written and not what your mind wants to insert. Hint: Stumbling over a sentence usually indicates awkward wording. Rewrite it.
Of course, the main rule is to follow the publisher’s guidelines, but when those are lacking, these 15 steps will produce crisp, easy-to-understand writing that is stuffed with meat. What reader can resist that?
Don’t forget to click “like” before you leave! Happy day! Deb
Learn more at www.CreativeWritingInstitute.com.